集成、集成整合

集成、集成整合

本白皮书涵盖了电动和混合动力汽车动力传动系统的未来发展趋势。特别是动力总成、电气和电子系统的集成。这份白皮书故意忽略了电池组,而谈论了动力系统中的其他一切。随着越来越多的电动汽车进入市场,动力系统的发展出现了一些明显的趋势。由于销量的增加,乘用车行业正在引领这一潮流,但我们也看到了商用车行业出现这些趋势的迹象,因为OEM开始认真考虑增加销量的项目,并认真考虑如何降低电动汽车产品的成本。我们也有一些OEM的2nd甚至3理查德·道金斯现在的电动汽车已经从最初的量产中学到了很多东西,并且正在改进设计。这是有帮助的,看看这一演变,以了解更多可以做什么来优化动力系统设计。很明显,OEM公司正在努力研究如何减少车辆的物料清单(BOM)成本,以降低销售价格,同时提高利润率。他们还在研究如何通过简化车辆设计来帮助生产线组装。虽然围绕电池组和电池成本有很多活动,但其他动力系统也不应被遗忘。主要动力系统子系统,如牵引逆变器、DC/DC变换器、车载充电器以及高压(HV)线束和互连系统,都需要大量的材料成本。总之,这个主要的设计趋势是集成。高度集成的更专门的平台特定组件。特斯拉Model 3就是一个很好的例子。对于Model 3,特斯拉设计了一个高度集成的电源分配模块,有时被称为电池顶层,它位于汽车后座下电池模块的后面。 The fact that this is a fully integrated module that includes the master Battery Management System (BMS) controller, DC/DC converter, onboard battery charger and high voltage junction box fully integrated into a single module is in itself showing a good level of integration, putting all of these devices into a single box saves on a lot of external HV wiring harness and interconnects. Busbars are used throughout the module that are protected with plastic insulation guards. This will save a huge amount of weight and cost compared to a more traditional approach with separate units. Any HV component integration that can delete HV wiring harness and interconnects is a good thing as it helps to save cost, weight, manufacturing complexity and also improves safety. But looking a little more closely also shows us that the DCDC and onboard charger are a single integrated liquid cooled unit. This makes a lot of sense, not least because when the demand on the charger is at its highest the demand on the DC/DC converter which is used to step the HV from the battery down to 12V for the other onboard systems like the HVAC and infotainment is at its lowest, so even if there was no other component commonality than shared cooling this would be a smart move. In the Tesla, the motor and inverters were already highly integrated on the model S and this has been followed through to the 3, with the inverter, motor, and gearbox packaged into a single drive unit. High-performance versions having an integrated motor drive unit at the front of the car and another at the rear, also giving 4-wheel drive. There are also some other benefits to this approach that we will go in to in the future. The new Hyundai Kona, also features a highly integrated drive unit, this time it is mounted up front in the vehicle more like a traditional engine would be. A similar approach is also used in the Nissan Leaf. The Kona has a module which stacks the motor inverter, high voltage junction box, and onboard charger together at the front of the car. These are effectively separate units that are very close coupled so not quite as integrated as on the Tesla. Tesla’s positioning of mounting the power distribution, OBC and DCDC directly on the battery also helps them to reduce HV cabling over the Kona and Leaf. The primary constraint of the Kona and Leaf is their adaption of the electric drivetrain to a vehicle bodyshell that was designed for an internal combustion engine.现代科纳动力单元与竞争对手相比,备受赞誉的捷豹I-Pace在子系统上的集成程度较低,可能是因为这是捷豹首次推出纯电动汽车。从I-Pace和特斯拉Model 3的橙色布线数量上就可以看出差异,Model 3去掉了很多橙色的布线,这很理想。在商用车领域,戴姆勒(Daimler)的eActros新卡车、特斯拉(Tesla)和尼古拉(Nikola)的artic拖拉机单元的新卡车都有有趣而相似的动力系统布局,这些布局正在改变规范。所有这些新卡车都使用集成马达/变速器,每个驱动轮都有单独的马达。这取代了更传统的单一大型马达通过差速器驱动车轮。这种传动系统配置消除了车辆差速器,并允许在多个电动马达之间分离动力。这还有其他一些好处,我们将在未来的白皮书中讨论。电力电子设备也与马达紧密相连,但还没有像模型3那样高度集成。这种整合还将继续,而达纳最近收购的商用车电机和电力电子公司TM4是卡车轴制造的领导者,这表明未来将朝着更高度集成的卡车驱动线发展。与汽车相比,卡车的体积可能更小,包装方面的挑战也有所不同,但优化动力总成成本、简化组装和提高整车效率仍然是一个挑战。滚球体育app最新版AVID Learning Electric Vehicle Technology播客封面艺术

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关于作者

瑞安·莫恩

瑞安·莫恩

AVID Technology Group Ltd.董事总滚球体育app最新版经理。滚球体育app最新版AVID总部位于英格兰东北部,是重型高性能汽车电气化动力系统设计和制造的领导者。